THE SHADE TREE


A BI-MONTHLY BULLETIN DEVOTED TO NEW JERSEY'S SHADE TREES


Volume 91 — July–August 2018 — Issues 7 & 8

This Issue Presents…

Editor: Richard S. Wolowicz
Executive Director: Donna Massa
Blake Hall, 93 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick NJ 08903
Telephone: (732)246-3210   Fax: (732)640-5289
E-mail: trees@njstf.org

DIRECTOR'S DISCOURSE

By Donna Massa

Plans are well underway to deliver a conference presented by renowned speakers who are extremely knowledgeable about the industry, experienced with speaking engagements and able to engage their audiences. Additionally, we have interested exhibitors old and new who are eager to talk with you and the Crowne Plaza staff are excited to welcome us back to their venue! Don't forget the giveaways, contests and chances to win prizes! This year make sure you drop by and see EVERY exhibitor who has joined us. Participating exhibitors will individually offer a raffle each day of the conference. Stop by and see them, enter your name for their raffle prize and perhaps you will be a lucky winner. There will be many opportunities to win. You must be in it to win it.

Join us this year at The Crowne Plaza in Cherry Hill, New Jersey on THURSDAY AND FRIDAY, October 18-19, 2018 as we present our 93rd Annual Conference.

We continue to offer extended opportunities for training. Not only will we have our General Session, we continue to offer CORE training and Inventory/i-Tree training sessions! The CORE training is a one-day training session that will be offered on Thursday OR Friday. You will have a choice of which day you would like to attend CORE. The Inventory/i-Tree session will be offered on FRIDAY only.

In CORE training, obtain a solid foundation and understanding of the community forestry program and shade tree commissions, become aware of the legal aspects of managing trees and gain an insight to and recognition of hazardous tree situations. The Inventory/i-Tree program will address why we need an inventory and prepare participants how to design and conduct a municipal street tree inventory with i-Tree functionality. The program will also teach how to utilize the data collected through the inventory in productive and meaningful ways. NJ Community Forestry credits will be offered for attendance at Inventory/i-Tree Training. No Community Forestry credits are offered for participaton in CORE. CORE is a separate requirement under the NJ Shade Tree and Community Forestry Assistance Act and is part of the Training Skills and Accreditation Program established under the Act.

DPW credits for public works employees are available for both CORE training as well as Inventory/i-Tree Training. Look for details about both of these additional training sessions at our conference in this year's program which is scheduled to be released toward the end of August.

Earn educational credits from the NJ Community Forestry and obtain CORE certifications. Earn other certification credits from the DEP Pesticide Control Programs in New Jersy as well as New York and Pennsylvania. Don't forget credits earned from the NJAISA, the Public Works Association, the Society of American Foresters as well as LTE and LTCO credits. Make sure your municipality remains in good standing with the State of New Jersey and keep your licenses current all at once converence. If you've joined us in the past, please join us again to experience the fresh and exhilarating changes we have planned for this year. If you've never been to the NJ Shade Tree Federation Conference, THIS IS THE YEAR TO ATTEND! If your municipality hasn't been represented at the conference in the past or if you need professional license credits the NJ Shad Tree Federation Conference is the place to be. We encourage ALL municipalities and tree care professionals to attend. It is time well spent.

The conference is at The Crowne Plaza in Cherry Hill, NJ. Be sure to reserve October 18th and 19th and join us! General Session continues to host talented speakers who have the knack to engage an audience's interest and relay information that each of us can bring back to our businesses and/or communities.

Opening Program for all sessions (General and CORE) will begin on Thursday morning at 8:30 am. Our General Session will open with a presentation by Dr. Cecil Konijnendijk van den Bosch from the University of British Columbia - Vancouver "Start with Design: Good Planning Optimizes Your Urban Forest's Return on Inventment." The benefits of urban forests have become widely known and recognized. Yet, it's often still a struggle to develop multifunctional urban forests and to have urban forestry recognized by decision makers and integrated in urban planning and development strategies. This presentation looks at some of the barriers and opportunities related to this. Based on experiences and examples from across the world, ways of designing and developing better, more productive and more widely recognized urban forests will be presented.

Following Dr. Cecil Konijnendiijk van den Bosch and in response to multiple requests from the membership, we will discuss Trees & Sidewalks - before & after the fact: preventions & solutions.

After lunch, we will hear a brief discussion from Carrie Sargaent, NJ Urban & Community Forestry Coordinator on RGGI. The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is the first mandatory market-based program in the United States to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Carrie will share with us New Jersey's recent rejoining of the initiative and how it relates to the Community Forestry program.

Following the RGGI discussion, we welcome Richard Leopold, a graduate student of Rutgers. Rich will share with us his research on the tree growth rate of NJ street trees.

Dr. Richard Rathjens from the Davey Institute then joins us for a discussion on diseases and pests after a storm. Whether there be snowstorms, hurricanes or thunderstorms, recent weather appears to be some of the worst in history. Besides, some of the obvious injuries to trees caused by high winds and flooding, what pests can an arborist expect in the years following severe weather? The presentation will focus on wood-decay fungi and boring insects that may gain entry to a tree following wounding. The types of pests involved, and possible control measures will be discussed.

Dr. Kathleen Wolf, Research Social Scientist, from the University of Washington, will end Thursday's session with her research on people, health and trees. The research on nature experiences and public health outcomes is emerging as a major influence in community policy and planning. Acknowledging that nature is good for people is not new, but the science can help urban forestry advocates build a stronger case for trees in their communities. Dr. Wolf's presentation will provide an overview of city trees and health research. Taking another step, showing the business case or economic value of providing more nature in communities moves trees, parks and gardens from 'nice to have' to an essential element of community planning and design.

Want an update on EAB? Be sure to stay with us! Join us in the Gallery (the room next to the pub) at 5:30 PM for an informal round table discussion regarding EAB in New Jersey. The NJ Community Forestry Council in conjunction with the NJ Urban & Community Forestry Program recently held a stake-holders meeting to discuss EAB in New Jersey. Join us in this informal setting to hear about what was discussed. No registration is required to attend. Light refreshments will be offered.

Opening Program for all sessions on Friday (General, CORE, & Inventory) will begin at 8:30 am. Dr. Cecil Konijnendijk van den Bosch will join us once again to present "Urban Forest Diversity - Why Variety Biocultural Diversity Matters." In times of climate change, urban densification, pest outbreaks and other major challenges, the call for more diverse and resilient urban forests is increasing. This presentation discusses the current state of urban forest diversity, both in and outside of North America, highlighting efforts to promote greater tree diversity. It also introduces the concept of biocultural diversity as a way of recognizing that tree diversity and people diversity go hand in hand in our cities and towns.

Following Dr. Cecil Konijnendijk van den Bosch's presentation, Thomas Chamberland, from the United States Forest Service's National Urban Forest Strike Team Advisory Board, will provide a wrap up of the Urban Forest Strike Team Program.

After lunch, Dr. Richard Rathjens, from the Davey Institute joins us once again to help us diagnose soil problems. It has been estimated that 80% of shade tree disorders can be attributed to their soil environment. Unfortunately, because arborists do not have ready access to the root zone of plants, the true cause of many tree maladies goes undetected. The plant symptoms, diagnostic tests and treatments for eight soil-related problems will be discussed.

Following Dr. Rathjens' presentation, John Patten, NJ Green Industry Council Past President, will share with us a "One-Two Punch for Spotted Lanternfly Control." What does the Spotted Lanternfly look like and what is its life cycle? Where did it come from and where is it now? What plants host this insect and how does it spread? How do I know if the Spotted Lanternfly is in our area? What kind of damage should I be looking for? How do I control or trap this insect? These and other questions will be answered by John as he shares his thoughts with us.

Wait! We're not done yet! Dr. Robert Polomski, of Clemson University would like you to join him in a discussion addressing "Tough Trees in Tough Sites While Fostering Biodiversity." While communities strive to manage large-statured trees that provide more benefits than smaller-statured trees, the urban environment presents an assortment of challenges that affect tree longevity and prevents them from attaining their full genetic potential. Given these urban constraints, certain species and cultivars perform well in urban environments. These high-performing genus groups will be discussed along with approaches that support genotypic diversity to avoid monocultural disasters.

Last, but certainly not least, join us at this year's 93rd Annual Conference Dinner on Friday shortly after the conference ends. Make it a night out for you and the family. Enjoy the finest comfort foods of the season and unwind to the entertainment of Catmoondaddy. It doesn't get any better than that. The menu has been carefully selected to satisfy everyone's appetite. Over 20 door prizes make the evening fun and your chances of winning are pretty good. Stay and enjoy a relaxing evening! All are welcome!

We have a plethora of talent ready, willing and able to share their expertise with you. Take advantage of all that the NJ Shade Tree Federation Conference has to offer. It is time well spent!

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LTE PAGE:  LOOK UP BEFORE THE STORM

Hurricanes and Violent Storms

When government expectations are for an active season, "It is important that people who live in the East and Gulf coastal areas be prepared," says Tchukki Andersen, staff arborist with the Tree Care Industry Association. "Right now, get your trees as ready as they can be to survive a major storm. Don't wait until the storm is headed your way."

One of the greatest dangers to life and property during hurricanes is posed by falling trees and limbs.

"Growing trees will 'catch' more wind and become heavier, so they are prone to increased mechanical stresses, increasing the chances of failure," explains Andersen. "Preparing trees for a natural disaster is a must and should be done well in advance of the storm season. To help ease these dangers, have a professional arborist evaluate yor trees. Doing this will help you determine potential weaknesses and dangers."

Look at your trees for the following warning signs:

  • Wires in contact with tree branches. Trees may become energized when they are contacted by electric wires.
  • Dead or partially attached limbs hung up in the higher branches that could fall and cause damage or injury.
  • Cracked stems and branch unions that could cause catastrophic failure of a tree section.
  • Hollow or decayed areas on the trunk or main limbs, or mushrooms growing from the bark that may indicate a decayed and weakened stem.
  • Peeling bark or gaping wounds in the trunk could also indicate structural weakness.
  • Fallen or uprooted trees putting pressure on other trees beneath them.
  • Tight, V-shaped branch unions, which are much more prone to failure than open, U-shaped unions.
  • Heaving soil at the tree base is a potential indicator of an unsound root system.

Remember, too, that a tree is a living thing, and its integrity and stability change over time, so don't assume that tree that has survived 10 severe storms will necessarily survive an eleventh.

This information is brought to you by the Tree Care Industry Association and the NJ Board of Tree Experts.
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2018 GREEN COMMUNITIES ACHIEVEMENT AWARD REQUEST FOR NOMINATIONS

The New Jersey Green Communities Achievement Award recognizes those nominees whose outstanding efforts have greatly contributed to the field of urban and community forestry in New Jersey. Exemplary work, whether public or private is eligible for the award program.

The Green Communities Awards recognize up to four (4) recipients per year in the following categories:

  • Individual
  • Municipality
  • Business/Tree Care Industry
  • Non-Profit/Non-Governmental Organization

The criteria for nomination are:

  • Improving the environment in New Jersey's communities through wise management of the trees and forest resources and the development of a self-sustaining local urban and community forestry program.
  • Raising awareness of the value of urban and community trees and forests in New Jersey through education and outreach.
  • Enhancing the beauty of New Jersey's cities and towns with programs and projects for trees and forests.
  • Providing exceptional effort and meritorious contributions to the field of urban and community forestry in New Jersey.

Please provide a brief nomination narrative providing justification for the nomination based on the categories and criteria described above. Nomination must state the Name, Title, Organization, Address, Email, and Telephone Number of both the nominator and the nominee. Nomination narratives should not exceed two (2) pages in length.

Nominations for the 2018 Green Communities Award are due ty 12:00 PM, Monday, August 20, 2018.

Nominations must be emailed to Shannon Hart, NJ Urban and Community Forestry Program, Shannon.hart@dep.nj.gov. The subject of the email must state '2018 Green Communities Award Nomination'. Questions may be directed to Ms. Hart at the email provided, or call 609.292.6512.

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PRUNING DECIDUOUS TREES

By Laura Jull, UW-Madison Horticulture

Why prune trees? Pruning is important for a variety of reasons. Pruning can help control the size of a tree, direct growth, influence flowering or fruiting, or maintain plant health and appearance. Pruning can also increase the safety of a tree by removing broken, diseased, dead, or dying branches. In addition to pruning, selecting plants that are suited to your environment and location are very important. The ultimate height and spread, in addition to location of overhead powerlines, should be taken into account when selecting trees for landscaping.

What should be pruned? Newly planted trees: Newly planted trees should not be pruned unless a branch is broken, diseased or dead. These trees need foliage to produce carbohydrates (sugars) that are then transported to the root system for initiation of new roots.

Young trees: After a young tree is established for two to five years, the tree can be pruned to encourage a well-branched canopy. Lower branches can be removed to raise the canopy, if desired. Scaffold branches to be maintained in the tree should be selected such that they are 12-18 inches apart, are evenly distributed around the trunk and have wide crotch angles. Remove no more than 1/3 of the total crown of a tree at one time. Young trees also need corrective pruning to remove crossing branches, double leaders, water sprouts, and root suckers.

Older trees: Older, established trees, if properly trained when young, require little pruning. These trees should never be topped as this leads to poor branch structure and increased limb breakage. Use the three-point method of limb removal for pruning large branches. This method ensures proper pruning and closure of wounds. Contact a certified arborist to prune larger limbs and remove trees, particularly if the tree is close to power lines or buildings.

The 3-point method of proper pruning of large limbs: When doing any type of pruninig, always use a sharpe pruning saw for making pruning cuts. Also, be sure to disinfect your pruning tools with alcohol or a 10% bleach solution after each pruning cut to avoid spreading diseases.

Step one: Select the branch that you want to remove. On large limbs, the first cut should be 12 to 18 inches from the limb's point of attachment. The pruning cut should be an undercut made 1/2 way through the branch (see diagram). This pruning cut is very important because it relieves weight from the branch collar and prevents accidental tearing of bark from the tree's trunk when the limb is removed.

Step two: The second pruning cut should be made on the outside of the first cut (i.e., farther from the trunk.) Cut all the way through the limb from the top down, thus removing the weight of the branch.

Step three: The final cut should be made next to the tree's trunk outside of the branch collar. Cut from the top down and cut all the way through the remaining branch stub. The branch collar should be left intact. DO NOT cut the branch flush with the tree's trunk. A proper cut avoids large wounds and allows the tree's wound to close quickly.

Should I use wound treatments? In general, wound treatments, such as tree paint or wound dressing, are not recommended. These compounds slow down wound closure and promote decay. One exception when wound treatments are recommended, is the case of oak trees that are pruned during the growing season. Using wound treatments on oaks is important to keep out insects that transmit the oak wilt fungus (see University of Wisconsin Garden Facts XHT1075).

Arbor Day gives us an excellent opportunity to appreciate the trees that clean our water and air, cool our cities, and beautify our communities. This celebration ― and all the Earth Week events we've been celebrating across the state this week ― remind us of the importance of trees to a healthy environment.

When should I prune trees? Most deciduous trees should be pruned in late fall to winter. At this time of year, you can see the overall branch structure easily, and most insects and disease-causing organisms are not active. Late fall/winter pruning is especially important for oak trees to help prevent spread of the fungus that causes oak wilt (see University of Wisconsin Garden Facts XHT1075). Late spring and summer are usually not good times of year to prune because disease pathogens are present and wound closure is slower. If you prune in late winter, some trees may bleed or ooze sap excessively in the early spring. The bleeding may be unsightly but does not harm the tree. Examples of trees that bleed excessively are maple, willow, birch, walnut, beech, hornbeam, elm and yellowwood.

Definitions

Branch collar: the ring of trunk tissue that surrounds a lateral branch at the point of attachment to the stem.

Double leaders: two major, terminal growing points located at the top of the tree.

Root suckers: vigorous, upright, adventitious shoots that arise from latent buds below the graft union or at the base of the tree.

Scaffold branches: the large branches that form the main structure of the crown of a tree.

Topping: an improper pruning technique that reduces the height of a tree by removal of large branches back to larger primary branches. This technique is not recommended.

Watersprouts: vigorous, vertical, adventitious shoots that arise from latent buds above the ground or graft union on older wood.

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