Volume 90 — May – June 2017 — Issues 5 & 6

This Issue Presents…

Editor: Richard S. Wolowicz
Executive Director: Donna Massa
Blake Hall, 93 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick NJ 08903
Telephone: (732)246-3210   Fax: (732)640-5289


By Donna Massa

Plans are currently underway to bring to you the NJ Shade Tree Federation's 92nd Annual Conference. There are changes on the horizon!! We are returning to The Crowne Plaza in Cherry Hill this year. The Conference will be held at the Crowne Plaza in Cherry Hill on Thursday and Friday, October 19th - October 20th. Yes…. the conference will be held on a Thursday and Friday.

We are preparing to offer a dynamic program with renowned speakers who will educate, entertain, and engage you. We welcome our guest speakers Kim Coder, Professor, Community Forestry, Tree Biology and Health Care from the University of Georgia, Dr. Ann Brooks Gould, Department of Plant Biology, Rutgers The State University, Dr. Neil Hendrickson, Northeast Technical Researcher at Bartlett's Research Laboratories, Dr. James Murphy, Department of Plant Biology, Rutgers The State University, and Dr. Stephanie Murphy, Director of Soil Testing Lab, Rutgers The State University. We also welcome Bob Wells, Associate Director of Arboriculture at the Morris Arboretum, University of Pennsylvania, Rich Buckley, Director of the Plan Diagnostic Lab, Rutgers the State University, Heidi Hesselein and Daryl Kobesky of Pleasant Run Nursery, and the NJ Emerging Management Team. There will certainly be a plethora of individuals with a multitude of talent to share.

Our program this year includes continued discussions on Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), problems diagnosing essential elements of deficiency and toxicity in trees, pruning with emphasis on specifications and ANSI standards, ice storms and tree damage, street trees for communities, soil analysis, and tree risk assessment qualifications. Add to our program our exhibit hall filled with vendors old and new who want to reach out, educate and help you implement your mission.

Join us this year at the Crowne Plaza in Cherry Hill on Friday evening, October 20th as the NJ Shade Tree Federation celebrates 92 years of serving you, the municipalities and tree care professionals throughout the State of New Jersey. There will be giveaways, door prizes, and entertainment as we recognize individuals who have excelled in the industry.

Look for more detail on the upcoming convreence in next issue of "The Shade Tree". Plan now to attend the entire conference. We look forward to seeing everyone there. Your time will be well spent. You'll walk away enlightened.

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Are you tired of waiting by your mailbox – anxiously awaiting the postal service to deliver your copy of The Shade Tree? The NJ Shade Tree Federation's bi-monthly publication is dedicated to elaborate on education and new advances in the tree industry. Avoid the wait. You can sign up for electronic delivery of The Shade Tree. Contact Donna Massa at the Federation's office by email: ΝЈ Electronic delivery can save you up to two weeks of waiting over hard copies being process through the US Postal Service.

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By William Elmendorf, Ph.D.
Penn State Extension Fact Sheet 3

This article explains how citizen advocacy groups can work with community officials and develop working relationships with local leaders to put "green issues" on the agendas of local governments.

Developing good relationships with community officials is essential in putting "green issues" on the agendas of local governments. Citizen advocacy groups, including those concerned with trees and other environmental issues, often react quickly in response to a crisis, and sometimes they disband after the immediate problem is resolved. It is best to develop working relationships with community leaders before a crisis occurs.

By finding out the different roles and powers of elected officials and department heads, you can concentrate on gaining the cooperation of those who can best support your program. The city or borough manager's office is a good starting point to reach the appropriate officials. Think about the perspectives of those you are meeting with and try to understand them. Will they be supportive of green or environmental issues?

Approach meetings with officials as you would other business meetings. State your concerns and ideas concisely and explain why they are important. In your discussion, use specific examples of issues and opportunities and be ready to present sound, logical arguments to support your position. Understand the costs and financial impacts of your requests and propose various options.

If there is opposition to your program, consider alternatives that will enable officials to address the concerns of opposing groups. Prepare a program summary in writing with specific examples and financial information. Distribute the summary before your meeting begins and refer to it during the discussion.

Ways to Work with Community Officials

Observing the guidelines below will help you to develop successful relationships with community officials and their staff.

When working with officials, remember that you have the right to express your views and opinions and that officials and legislators want to listen and help. You have the opportunity to bring unique information and perspectives to community leaders. Building partnerships and cooperation will greatly improve the chance of having a successful program or project.

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By J. D. Heyes
Natural News
November 29, 2016 trees image

In addition to the mass death of bees throughout the United States, there is another potentially life-ending death epidemic occurring as well: the death of millions of oxygen-producing trees.

As noted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service officials have documented and identified an additional 36 million dead trees across the state of California since their last aerial survey taken in May. The additional trees bring the total number of dead trees since 2010 to more than 102 million, on 7.7 million acres of the state's drought-stricken forest land.

This year alone, USDA and the Forest Service noted, 62 million trees have died, which is a 100 percent increase in dead trees across the state over the previous year. And what's more, millions of additional trees are in a weakened state and are expected to die out in the coming months and years.

Fast Becoming Non-renewable

The loss of this vital resource isn't just happening in California. It's also happening near Fukushima, Japan, site of the worst nuclear disaster since the mid-1980s; it's happening as fires rage through forest land in Indonesia; and it's happening throughout North America, the Waking Times reported.

Recently, a study published in the journal Nature, estimated that the planet has 3.04 trillion trees. The research further noted that 15.3 billion trees are cut down annually, and that 46 percent of the world's trees have been cleared over the past 12,000 years.

So clearly, a renewable resource is fast becoming non-renewable.

"Trees are among the most prominent and critical organisms on Earth, yet we are only recently beginning to comprehend their global extent and distribution," said Thomas Crowther of the Netherlands Institute of Ecology, who conducted the research using satellite data and computer modeling.

The Waking Times noted further that the tree deaths in Northern California have been linked to Sudden Oak Death, in addition to the ongoing drought.

Elsewhere in the U.S., trees are becoming more scarce as well. For instance, in 2010, Hawaii's healthy ohi'a trees began to die off on the Big Island because of what is now referred to as ohi'a disease. Scientists still do not understand its origins, and as such do not yet know how to treat or prevent it.

Entire regions and mountainsides are losing trees, and in very short order. And while commercial logging operations include the replanting of harvested forests, trees take many years to mature. Also, some have speculated that the tree death is due to a confluence of issues – a sign that rugged trees, more hearty than any other plants, are in a generally weakened condition due to constant assault from pollution and even climate engineering projects.

Never Too Late to Preserve What is Left

As reported by the Christian-Science Monitor, today there are basically only two big forests left on the planet, according to research funded by the Natural Science Foundation. These are located in South America and Africa; the rest are isolated.

"There are really only two big patches of intact forest left on Earth — the Amazon and the Congo — and they shine out like eyes from the center of the map,' lead author Nick Haddad, a professor at North Carolina State University, told the New Yorker."

The remaining forests are relatively fragmented, the researcher said. And nearly 20 percent of forested land lies about the length of a football field away from its edge, while almost 70 percent of forested land is within a half-mile of the forest's edge.

The fragmentation takes a major toll on wildlife and other living things. Researchers said that they found that fragmented habitats, on average, lose half their plant and animal species within 20 years.

Researchers noted that one way to reverse the fragmentation is to engage in a program to create corridors of trees, thereby connecting fragmented forestland.

"It's never too late to preserve what we already have," said Doug Levey, program officer with the National Science Foundation, and co-author of the paper.

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On April 17, 2017, New Jersey Board of Tree Experts' rules were adopted and approved on the New Jersey Register. The Board of Tree Experts can now fully implement the Tree Expert and Tree Care Operator Licensing Act of 2010. This full implementation of the Law and the Rules will directly affect all tree care companies doing business in New Jersey and will affect you as the law permits the transfer of a Certified Tree Expert to a Licensed Tree Expert.

Tree care companies have 60 days from the ruling or until June 16, 2017 to register their business and then have 360 days (until April 12, 2018) or four exam periods, whichever is later, to have at least one licensed individual working full time in the company. Companies must also provide the Board of Tree Experts with documented proof that they have administered proper safety training to their crews, and maintain a minimum amount of insurance and workers' compensation.

The Licensed Tree Expert (LTE) will be able to offer all the services of the Licensed Tree Care Operator (tree pruning, repairing, brush cutting or removal, tree removal, and stump grinding or removal) plus tree establishment, fertilization, cabling and bracing, lightning protection, consulting, diagnosis, and treatment of tree problems or diseases, tree management during site planning and development, and tree assessment.

The law defines several ways an individual can obtain a license, including taking the examinations, by grandfathering in to an LTCO or by submitting a reciprocity application for a sustainable equivalent license or credential. Licensees will have to obtain 32 Continuing Education Credits over two years as part of the Licensing process. The annual NJ Shade Tree Federation Conference can help tree experts obtain required credits.

Current Certified Tree Experts will be transferred to Licensed Tree Experts with a procedure found within the Rules. Please wait until you are notified by the Board of Tree Experts on how to transfer from a CTE to an LTE. That Notification will be provided.

If you have not received your 2016 CTE card, please call the Board office or e-mail the Board at You will need a copy of your 2016 CTE card as part of the process.

Visit the New Jersey Board of Tree Experts website to learn how this law could further affect your operations. Find all the Information and Forms needed to register your business and read the Rules and the Law.

The New Jersey Board of Tree Experts can be reached by:
Phone – 732-534-0982
Fax – 732-534-0983

This information is brought to you by the
Tree Care Industry Association and the NJ Board of Tree Experts.
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Arborilogical Services

All trees are sensitive to root disturbance. Examples include construction, landscaping, sprinkler installation, and grade changes. The effects of these changes on existing trees can be quite devastating and can take five to ten years to become fully visible.

To understand how trees are affected by root disturbance it is important to understand the structure of a tree's root system. Ninety percent of the root system is in the first 12 to 18 inches of soil. The roots extend radially from the trunk one to two times the height of the tree. During construction, the root system is cut to install foundations, sidewalks, driveways, utilities, pools, landscape beds, and irrigation systems. The closer to the tree the construction occurs, the more destructive it is.

There are Two Main Types of Tree Roots

"I would say almost every yard in New Jersey has a dogwood tree in it," said Tom Molnar, a plant biologist who oversees the ornamental tree breeding program for the Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station.

  1. Structural Roots
    These roots anchor the tree and keep it from falling over. The structural roots begin at the base of the tree called the root flare. They grow mostly horizontally in the soil and taper in diameter as they move away from the tree The cumulative mass of the root system keeps the tree upright, not just the tap root. The tap root can dissipate over time and is replaced with a series of sinker roots (smaller tap roots) through the entire rootzone. In conclusion, the closer to the trunk roots are cut, the higher the probability the tree will be unstable and fall over. A good rule of thumb is to stay approximately 6" to 12" from the trunk for every inch in diameter the tree is at DBH (diameter at breast height or 4.5' above grade). For example, a 16" Live Oak requires a construction free distance of 8' to 16' from the trunk. Your certified arborist can assist you in deciding the critical distance depending on your individual situation.

  2. Feeder Roots
    These roots are the small fibrous roots that absorb water and minerals. The more of these roots that are destroyed, the more the tree's ability to feed itself is impacted. Cutting roots is not the only way these roots are killed. Damage also occurs through compaction of the soil from heavy equipment repeatedly driving over the root zone or supplies being stored under the tree. Compaction of the soil reduces the pore space between soil particles, eliminating the oxygen in the soil which causes root death. Signs of feeder root damage are small pale colored leaves, leaves turning brown on the edges or shedding early, and the tips of the limbs dying over time.

Root Damage from Construction

In general, it is recommended not to remove more than 20-30% of the tree above and below ground at a given time. Tree species react differently to construction changes, but all trees take several years to acclimate and recover.

The most common damage following construction is from irrigation installation and over-watering. Sprinkler installation can cause just as much damage as initial construction due to the amount of trenching in the root zone. When laying out sprinkler lines, limit the trenching across the root zone under the trees. Radial trenching can aid in this process.

Radial Irrigation Installation

After all the construction is completed and the irrigation is installed, it is critical to not over-water the existing trees. Most of our native trees are adapted to dry conditions and are adapted to receiving approximately 30" of rain per year. When an increase in water occurs, the soil can stay saturated, reducing the amount of oxygen. Roots begin to rot in this anaerobic condition, and trees can decline or die. Clay soils stay saturated longer than sandier soils. It is recommended to limit watering to 1" of water per week during the growing season including rainfall. This allows the soil to be moistened and then dry out, mimicking our region's natural rainfall pattern. Remember slope, drainage, rainfall, and sun exposure will vary the frequency and duration of the sprinkler system schedule. It is also helpful to match the water requirements of what you plant under the trees to the trees themselves. For example, planting Impatiens or Azaleas (requiring frequent watering) under a Red Oak (preferring dryer soils) will damage the Red Oak over time.

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